Trees and Other Hierarchies in MySQL

Great chapter from the unmissable book by Peter Brawley and Arthur Fuller … http://www.artfulsoftware.com/ … Thank you boys! Most non-trivial data is hierarchical. Customers have orders, which have line items, which refer to products, which have prices. Population samples have subjects, who take tests, which give results, which have sub-results and norms. Web sites have pages, which have links, which collect hits, which distribute across dates and times. With such data, we know the depth of the hierarchy before we sit down to write a query. The depth of the hierarchy of tables fixes the number of JOINs we need to write. But if our data describes a family tree, or a browsing history, or a bill of materials, hierarchical depth depends on the data. We no longer know how many JOINs it will take to walk the tree. We need a different data model. That model is the graph (Fig 1), which is a set of nodes (vertices) and the edges (lines or arcs) that connect them. This chapter is about how to model and query graphs in a MySQL database. Graph theory is a branch of topology. It is the study of geometric relations which aren’t changed by stretching and compression—rubber sheet geometry, some call it. Graph theory is ideal for modelling hierarchies—like family trees, browsing histories, search trees and bills of materials—whose shape and size we can’t know in advance. >> Go to Source...

Data Transformation and Linear Algebra

The problem of data transformation is solved in numerous ways with different levels of smartness and in different flavors. ETL (extract – transform – load) processes is a buzz word strongly related to this topic. Basically the requirement is to get a defined set of data entities, that would be data structures like records from tables in schemas from one presentation into another. That can be just a space time transformation (trivial as it maintains the structure – shape) or structural transformation which is shape changing. Based on some concepts of linear algebra where a fully understood algorithm has been defined over the last centuries, mostly the actual work done on different presentations of so called vectors ( which are well defined sets of data within a presentation (multi dimensional space) ). So something like the image above. Now, the idea is to try presenting a data structure in a space or what is equivalent provide a bi-directional transformation (mapping) onto that space. Impossible? I don’t think so. Conclusion, do it then! Ok, watch this blog and your curiosity will be satisfied...

John von Neuman

John von Neumann (December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-born American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields,[1] including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and fluid dynamics), economics (game theory), computer science (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.[2] He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (as one of the few originally appointed), and a key figure in the development of game theory[1][3] and the concepts of cellular automata,[1] the universal constructor, and the digital computer. Von Neumann’s mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA.[4] In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated “The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932.” Along with Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, von Neumann worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb. Von Neumann wrote 150 published papers in his life; 60 in pure mathematics, 20 in physics, and 60 in applied mathematics. His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while in the hospital and...

Giacomo Puccini

Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 – 29 November 1924), generally known as Giacomo Puccini, was an Italian composer whose operas are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire.[n 1] Puccini has been called “the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi”.[1] While his early work was rooted in traditional late-19th-century romantic Italian opera, he successfully developed his work in the ‘realistic’ verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. >> Go to Source...

Paul Klee

Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a painter born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, and is considered to be a German-Swiss.[a] His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was also a student of orientalism.[1] Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually got deep into color theory, writing about it extensively; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory (Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre), published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci’s A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance.[2][3][4] He and his colleague, the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the German Bauhaus school of art, design and architecture. His works reflect his dry humour and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and also his musicality. >> Go to Source...

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized 17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber music, choral works (including the celebrated Missa Solemnis), and songs. Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and Christian Gottlob Neefe. During his first 22 years in Bonn, Beethoven intended to study with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and befriended Joseph Haydn. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792 and began studying with Haydn, quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. He lived in Vienna until his death. In about 1800 his hearing began to deteriorate, and by the last decade of his life he was almost totally deaf. He gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose; many of his most admired works come from this period. >> Go to Source...

Vassily Vassilyevich Kandinsky

Vassily Vassilyevich Kandinsky (16 December 1866 – 13 December 1944) was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—he began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. In 1896 Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe’s private school and then at the Academy of Fine Arts. He returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Communist Moscow, and returned to Germany in 1921. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944. >> Go to Source...

Why curiosity is the key to science and medicine

Kevin B. Jones Science is a learning process that involves experimentation, failure and revision — and the science of medicine is no exception. Cancer researcher Kevin B. Jones faces the deep unknowns about surgery and medical care with a simple answer: honesty. In a thoughtful talk about the nature of knowledge, Jones shows how science is at its best when scientists humbly admit what they do not yet understand. Watch it...

The Munchausen Number

Their specific property is that the sum of their digits raised to themselves is the original number. With the number one, it works spectacularly and easily well. After that, you’re in trouble. It isn’t until you get to 3435 that things put themselves right (try it for yourself if you don’t believe us!). Here’s the proof – try it with any other number of which you care to think and it will simply not work. Now to proof that isn’t that straight forward … As usual programmers showed their brut force mentality and just tried them all … all? >> Go to Source...

Werner Karl Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key creators of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. In 1927 he published his uncertainty principle, upon which he built his philosophy and for which he is best known. Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 “for the creation of quantum mechanics”.[1] He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. Considerable controversy surrounds his work on atomic research during World War II. Following World War II, he was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which soon thereafter was renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics. He was director of the institute until it was moved to Munich in 1958, when it was expanded and renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Heisenberg was also president of the German Research Council, chairman of the Commission for Atomic Physics, chairman of the Nuclear Physics Working Group, and president of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. >> Go to Source...

Ghost Peloton

Ghost Peloton has been nominated for a Bike Design Award. You can rate the work at bit.ly/1p1acI0. Created for the grand depart of the Tour de France 2014 from Yorkshire, Ghost Peloton fuses performance cycling with athletic choreography performed by Phoenix Dance Theatre’s dancers, and the varied landscapes of race route. Each rider, bike and performer was illuminated using NVA’s bespoke LED light suit, which can instantaneously change colour, flash-rate and luminosity. The rhythm of movement from the choreographed actions of massed participants becomes a source of creativity in itself, extending perception of the immediate setting. Flashy Art or what? Watch the...

π & Fn+2 = Fn+1 + Fn

This wonderful function combines two extraordinary parts of mathematics in this equation. Pi and the Fibonacci numbers. Find out why in the source article. >> Go to Source...

Projective Geometry

And this is what happens when you include infinity in your geometry … The crossing of parallel lines. In mathematics, projective geometry is the study of geometric properties that are invariant under projective transformations. This means that, compared to elementary geometry, projective geometry has a different setting, projective space, and a selective set of basic geometric concepts. The basic intuitions are that projective space has more points than Euclidean space, in a given dimension, and that geometric transformations are permitted that move the extra points (called “points at infinity”) to traditional points, and vice versa. >> Go to Source...

GFBS is going strong …

Another wonderful website going for over 2 years now under the sofaDEVE umbrella … Have a look yourself and check out one of Edinburghs most qualified and interesting builders. Gordon Forsyth Building Services provide a professional and experienced all trades building service to the Residential and Commercial markets throughout Scotland and occasionally in England. Please take the time and check out projects and the services they provide. >>...

Eugene Paul “E. P.” Wigner

Eugene Paul “E. P.” Wigner (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995), was a Hungarian American theoretical physicist and mathematician. He received a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 “for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”; the other half of the award was shared between Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen. Wigner is notable for having laid the foundation for the theory of symmetries in quantum mechanics[1] as well as for his research into the structure of the atomic nucleus. It was Eugene Wigner who first identified Xe-135 “poisoning” in nuclear reactors, and for this reason it is sometimes referred to as Wigner poisoning. Wigner is also important for his work in pure mathematics, having authored a number of theorems. In particular, Wigner’s theorem is a cornerstone in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. >> Go to Source...

One Hel(vetica) of a Story – I love Typography

Book review from http://ilovetypography.com/ It is hard not to simply gush about Paul Shaw’s Helvetica and the New York City Subway System: The True (Maybe) Story. For a life-student and consumer of design history and culture publications, it ticks so many boxes that to ‘merely’ enjoy it is really quite easy. While there has been much said about Helvetica+ since its publication in 2011, readers might wonder why a review, so late in the day is worthwhile. Like all good design books, each time one returns to it new things seem to come to the fore. But more important than this, I believe there have been some important omissions in the discussions and reviews since the publication of the MIT Press edition.­ >> Go to Source...

The magic of Fibonacci numbers

Math is logical, functional and just … awesome. Mathemagician Arthur Benjamin explores hidden properties of that weird and wonderful set of numbers, the Fibonacci series. (And reminds you that mathematics can be inspiring, too!) Using daring displays of algorithmic trickery, lightning calculator and number wizard Arthur Benjamin mesmerizes audiences with mathematical mystery and beauty. >> Play...

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